Following the description of the evolution of cell therapy on the pages of Types of Stem Cells, it is also essential to know the technological processes of cells; from procurement to the end user. The main objective here is to continuously developing methods to preserve the integrity of the cells for worldwide distribution. The cells need to be stable within a given time and should sustain certain temperature changes, so to be transported right up to the end user without suffering any loss of cellular potency.
In therapeutic cell therapy the cells have to be readily active and intact upon administering to end users, assuring its efficacy.
So far, there were two fundamental methods used. The first was Fresh Frozen Cells, followed by the advancement of cell preservation – Lyophilization of Active Cells.
Here is a brief description of the progress of organ and stem cells processing from then.. till now.
1. Fresh Frozen Cells
The initial method was of course to freeze the cells with the intention to preserve active cellular material. The optimum freezing temperature is about -80C with cells retaining its stability. They are frozen no more than 3 months, after which degradation takes place.
The next step taken to prevent early cell degradation is freezing them at -196C, meaning freezing the cells in Liquid Nitrogen.
However, the transport and storage facilities (logistics) of these frozen cells posed a great deal of risk, inconvenience and cost. From the production lab that might be overseas, then to the forwarding company, then to the custom screening of the exported country, then to the company that imported and eventually to the clinics and hospitals. All the above takes a considerable amount of time, and all transports and places in that timeline must have proper freezing storage facility – every one of them.
The cells cannot be taken out of freezing or thawed at any time during transport or storage before reaching the end user. Any sloppiness or careless handling will result in heavy cell degradation or total loss of efficacy.
2. Lyophilized Cells
This advanced technique presently has proved to be most effective in sustaining biological information of the cells throughout the entire logistics. And it is absolutely convenient throughout the entire logistics too, all the way from the production lab to the point of treating the end user.
Lyophilized cells can be distributed worldwide without freezing, they are incredibly stable just kept in room temperature. They can be administered straight out of the packing; just reconstitute with sterile water and proceed. This will reactivate the entire cell factors and cellular information needed for effective regeneration of all body systems.
What is the technique of cell lyophilization? Well, this patented technique is similar to the common yeast used in baking. Yeast are tiny organisms and when water is added, it reactivates it and “wakes up.”